Basically, an internal combustion engine burns its fuel source inside the engine. It does this by igniting a small amount of fuel (in the case of car engines, the fuel is gas) which then causes an “explosion”. This small “explosion” or combustion, releases a tremendous amount of energy and the energy is used to propel engine parts. In the case of cars, the engine parts that have been set into motion by the combustion make the car move. The energy released by the “explosion” is considered chemical energy. Once that chemical energy has made a mechanical part move, it has been transformed into mechanical energy.http://www.sprocketworks.com/how-does-fracking-work-and-why-is-sand-used/
Using a Combustion Chamber to Control the Explosion
The small amount of fuel that is ignited to create chemical energy is done so by putting intense pressure on the fuel and an oxidizer (which is something that makes the fuel unstable and causes it to explode). In most internal combustion engines, this process occurs in a combustion chamber. Creating the “explosion” in a chamber allows us to direct the chemical energy created to a specific place. So in a car, the chemical energy is transferred by pistons that turn the chemical energy into mechanical energy and start the whole process of making the car “go”. In a gas powered chainsaw, the chemical energy is transferred to cutting blades. Here is a 3D animation video of how an internal combustion engine works in a car.
Different Types of Internal Combustion Engines
Not all internal combustion engines are the same. Some are quite simple, like a two-stroke engine, which would be used in small bikes, water crafts like jet skis, and hand-held machines like chainsaws and lawn-edgers. A four-stroke engine is a bit more complicated and it is typically much larger. Cars and large machinery like tractors and cranes, use four-stroke internal combustion engines.
The two-stroke engine is generally smaller and less expensive. Usually people interested in engines first learn about internal combustion engines by taking apart a two-stroke engine. The two-stroke engine shouldn’t be viewed as a stripped down four-stroke. It has many components which are unique to it, such as employing a one-way reed valve between the air-fuel (gas) intake and the crankcase (combustion chamber). Once the air-fuel mix is in the crankcase, it is trapped there by the reed valve. Two-strokes also don’t have valves. They have ports or holes which control how much pressure is in the crankcase. So once air-fuel mixture is in the crankcase, pistons will block the exhaust ports and pressure inside the crankcase will increase, causing an “explosion” and starting the internal combustion engine.
Four-stroke engines are usually large and they are the most often used internal combustion engine for cars. They are also used for heavy machinery like gas-powered generators. In a four-stroke, a piston moves down, drawing air-fuel mixture into the cylinder (combustion chamber). The piston then moves up, engaging a spark plug which ignites the air-fuel mixture. The chemical energy released (in the form of a gas) expands and expands until the piston is forced down. Finally, the piston shoots back up and the chemical energy is forced out of the combustion chamber and is turned into mechanical energy. Even though the four-stroke engine is heavier, larger and more complicated than the two-stroke, it is actually a more efficient engine.for more details, follow this link.
A weaving loom allows a person (weaver) to interlace two different sets of yarn or thread. The threads are interlaced at right-angles to create cloth. Weaving looms can be hand operated or machine operated, although nowadays, most fabric is created on machine weaving looms, except those fabrics created by home weavers or artisans. It is unclear when the weaving loom was first invented but what is known is that it has been part of human society for thousands of years.
There is some solid evidence that weaving looms were part of civilizations that existed in the Paleolithic era (this is the era where humankind invented stone tools). Certainly, it was around in the Neolithic era (10,200 BC, when humans started farming). A scrap of textile was found that researchers believe dates back to 5000 BC.http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/jacquard.htm
It’s interesting to point out that flax was the fiber most often used by Egyptian weavers at this time, but other civilizations relied on wool for making cloth, except in China and Southeast Asia, where they were already weaving silk from silkworms. By the biblical times, all major civilizations were using weaving looms. Initially, these looms were large and required three people to operate (two would do the shed and one person did the filling).
In many civilizations, most weavers were slaves or children. Islamic Golden Age of Weaving The Islamic Golden Age saw the addition of pedals to weaving looms. The pedals operated the heddles. This pedal loom was used across East Africa, Syria, and Iran. By 1177, this type of weaving loom was adopted by Spanish weavers and from there, it was introduced to the rest of Europe. Mechanized Weaving In the 1700s many inventors and industrialists tried to mechanize the weaving loom. This was done with varying degrees of success and it wasn’t until the early 1800s that power-weaving became common. This took weaving out of the home, where artist would hand-weave and turned it into a mechanized process that was done at factories.
Once the weaving loom became semi-automatic in the mid-1800s, the art of weaving was all but lost and it became a process completed in factories on steam-powered machines. Although weaving was now done on large machines, intricate designs still had to be completed by hand but this art too was taken over by machines with the invention of the Jacquard weaving loom in France.
A Jacquard weaving loom is a piece of equipment that is used to weave clothing or other textiles with a complicated design. It created complicated fabric designs with the use of punch cards. The weaving loom was invented by Joseph-Marie Jacquard at the beginning of the 19th century. Jacquard was a Frenchman and he was born to a family of weavers. Fabric woven on a Jacquard loom is typically called jacquard fabric.
Joseph-Marie Jacquard’s mechanical loom tremendously simplified the process of weaving complex patterns like damask and brocade and essentially negated the need for skilled weavers. Although he is given credit for creating this weaving loom, he based the Jacquard loom on the inventions of other Frenchmen: Jean Baptiste Falcon, Basile Bouchon, and Jacques Vaucanson.
Fracking is a process where we drill deep into the earth in an attempt to extract natural gas (called shale gas because it is in rock) and oil, which is these used for fuel. It is thought that natural gas and oil pockets are trapped in the rock. A water-sand-chemical mixture is shot at the rock, at high pressure, in order to make the rock release the natural gas or oil. The water-sand-chemical mixture takes the place of the gas inside the rock and this allows the gas to flow out to the top of the well where it is captured.
Not any sand can be used, drillers have to use special fracking sand which they purchase from suppliers. Often times, drillers drill horizontally to the rock layer (unlike vertically, which is used in other types of drilling). Fracking is a funny sounding term but it is actually short hand for hydraulic fracturing which is how the rock is “fractured”-by the use of a high pressure water-sand-chemical mixture.
The fracking doesn’t actually blast apart the rock (even though that’s what it sounds like). Instead, it creates small cracks or fractures that allow the trapped oil or gas to escape. Fracking Helps the Economy Fracking is helpful in that it allows us to access oil and gas resources which were typically hard to reach. Using these fuel sources has helped to decrease the cost of gas in the US as well as boosted our domestic oil production. Fracking will allow us to create electricity with far fewer CO2 emissions that are created with coal and it can give us gas security for the next 100 years, which is a big deal considering the current unstable state of the world’s oil market. Why is Sand Used in Fracking? It’s not just any sand. Drillers can’t scoop it up at the beach or run to Home Depot.http://www.dangersoffracking.com/
Frac Sand has a smoother, rounder, and more uniform shape than regular sand. Under a microscope, fracking sand and regular sand look completely different. This is because fracking sand is actually a high quality, pure quartz sand that is crush resistant. Fracking sand is designed to withstand a lot of pressure (such as being shot out of a hydraulic drill) and it is used almost exclusively by the petroleum industry. Although most fracking sand is made from high quality natural materials, it can also be made from sintered bauxite. This type of fracking sand looks like little ceramic beads. Occasionally, companies will use small beads that are made from aluminum.
Fracking Sand is a Prosperous Business A single fracking-drilled well can use thousands of tons of fracking sand. As more natural gas and oil wells are drilled using the fracking process, the demand for fracking sand has increased significantly. Fracking sand has become a billion dollar industry in its own right and many people in the industry refer to fracking sand as the “new gold”.
The high demand for fracking sand and the ability to make a large profit has led to the production of inferior fracking sands. It has therefore become important for drilling companies to find reliable sources of high quality fracking sand.
Consolidating your student loans can have some real benefits. But in order to decide if it is the right decision for you, let’s take a look at what consolidating student loans is, what it isn’t, and what it can do for you.
Is student loan consolidation different from other debt consolidation?
The short answer is, yes it is. It does share some similarities with other forms of debt consolidation. For instance, consolidating any debt, student loans or otherwise, enables you to have only one monthly payment and pay one interest rate instead of having multiple monthly payments and paying various interest rates. This can help simplify your life and if you consolidate into a loan that has a low interest rate, it can help you save money.
What About Consolidating Federal Student Loans?
One difference you will find with consolidating student loans is that federal student loans cannot be consolidated with other types of debts like consumer debt. But if you have private student loans, it is possible to combine them with other debt into one low-interest monthly payment.
Check out this article for reviews of student loan consolidation companies.
If you have federal student loans and you want to consolidate them, it can be beneficial to go with a Federal Direct Loan Consolidation. You still get the benefits you would receive by consolidating through a private company (one monthly payment and usually a lower interest rate), but choosing a Federal Direct Loan consolidation keeps you eligible for the benefits provided through a federal student loan such as having your loan forgiven if you work in public service or taking advantage of the federal government’s alternate repayment plans.
Is loan consolidation a good idea?
It can be a very good idea, but it depends on your circumstances. College costs have increased dramatically and students are graduating with high amounts of debt, often owed to multiple lenders and with interest rates that are high or, even worse, variable. Consolidating your student loans can enable you to find a lower interest rate that will save you money as well as help you pay off the loans faster, not to mention, the payment can be more manageable. There are a few things to keep in mind, if you decide to consolidate your student loans.
• A fixed interest rate is always best. If your consolidated loan has a variable rate, it can cause you hardships later on. This site will let you review student loan consolidation companies. It includes reviews of the companies and their interest rates.http://www.degreesource.com/student-loans-consolidation-explained/
• Often, a consolidated loan will increase the number of years that you are carrying the debt. Even if the interest rate is lower, you can wind up paying more in the long run because you have extended the life of the loan. If you can’t make your loan payments as they are set up now, then paying this additional amount in interest can make sense. If you can make your payments currently, then take a look at your budget and your goals for the next several years to decide if consolidating your student loans makes sense for you.
• When you consolidate your student loans, you have to think of it as a brand new loan. The terms, conditions, and interest rates of the old loans will no longer apply. You will be subject only to the rules, terms and conditions, and interest rates of the consolidated loan.
To understand how a rebreather works, let’s look at a normal scuba tank first. With a traditional scuba tank, every time you breathe in, you draw fresh oxygen or surface air from the tank. When you breathe out, the air (carbon dioxide) is exhaled into the water around you (this is what makes bubbles).
How Does a Rebreather Differ From a Traditional Scuba Tank?
Essentially, a rebreather takes advantage of the oxygen resource in your exhaled air and recirculates it back to your mouthpiece, so you can breathe it over and over again. The breathing loop that a rebreather creates extends your oxygen supply. Most divers who use rebreathers choose them because they are a more efficient use of oxygen and they are nearly silent (don’t disturb marine life). There are other benefits as well, such as you don’t exhale most of your body heat with a rebreather the way you do with a traditional tank, so you stay warmer. And deep water scuba divers have fewer decompression issues when they use rebreathers.But to rebreathe your air safely, the rebreather has to do a few things.http://www.scubadiving.com/training/basic-skills/are-you-ready-rebreathers
It has to scrub your exhaled air of carbon dioxide.
To do this, the rebreather circulates your exhaled air through a canister of sodium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide turns carbon dioxide into a hard solid (called calcium carbonate). Once it is solid, the carbon dioxide can’t recirculate back to your mouthpiece.
Give you more oxygen.
There isn’t a lot of oxygen left in the air we exhale, so it needs to be supplemented with additional oxygen. Rebreathers have a small canister that adds oxygen or a gas combination to the breathing loop.
Employ the use of oxygen sensors.
It is important the rebreather can monitor the oxygen pressure in the breathing loop and use this information to control the amount of oxygen or mixed gases that is added to the breathing loop.
Who Uses Rebreathers?
Many divers are choosing to use rebreathers over traditional tanks because they are a better use of resources. Traditional tanks waste a lot of oxygen but you don’t get this waste with a rebreather. Rebreathers are also significantly lighter. This is because traditional tanks have to employ the use of nitrogen which takes up most of the space in the tank. Rebreathers don’t use nitrogen so the same amount of oxygen that you would get with a traditional tank would be lighter in a rebreather.
Divers who like to go deeper than the “no decompression” depths also like rebreathers because they can stay down longer without incurring an obligation to decompress. And if the divers do find that they have to decompress, it is usually a shorter decompression time than with traditional tanks.
Rebreathers are almost completely silent and they produce no bubbles or very few bubbles. This is important for observing marine life as the bubbles emitted from a traditional tank are “loud” and will alert marine life to the diver’s presence. Initially, rebreathers were designed for military use. Now they are frequently used by advanced scuba divers who have undergone specific training on how to use a rebreather.visit the original site for more information.