Massaging your baby is a wonderful way to bond with your child, to help them relax and to reduce stress levels for the both of you. There are plenty of great benefits of massaging for a baby including soothing, weight gain, promoting digestion, improving blood circulation, easing pains and aches and massaging helps babies cry and fuss far less, sleep better and overcome certain conditions like colic or stomach issues much quicker. But massaging a baby takes quite a bit of skill and it might take a few practice session before you get the right feel for a good massage. Winter time is also quite terrible for massaging since those tiny little love bundles can catch a chill so easy. Here are some great tips to massage your baby during the winter.
Things you will need for a baby massage
Get everything ready before you start. The last thing you want to do is interrupt your massage session to go and look for essentials. You will need the following;
Baby lotion / oil – Any baby lotion or oil will do but night time oils or lotions are the best.
Hot towels – Hot towels will keep your little one relaxed and will keep them from stressing and catching a chill. A Towel Warmer Cabinet is a great investment for parents of infants because these handy cabinets will enable you to warm up all of your baby’s towels and clothing so bath time and dressing time will go much smoother.
Heater – A small heater or air-conditioner to heat the room.
Baby bath – Massages have the best results after a warm bath.
Baby bath soap & shampoo – You will also need some bedtime baby soap and shampoo.
Warm clothing – Warm clothing and a diaper to dress your little one in once the massage is done.
Watch massage tutorial videos
Before you get started, it might be wise to check out some baby massage tutorial videos online. These videos will give you a good idea of how to communicate with baby as you massage and how much pressure to add onto your baby’s body during a massage.
Short instructions for a good but quick baby massage
Heat up the room so your baby won’t catch a chill during the massage session. A massage can last 10 – 30 minutes depending on your little one’s preference.
Start with a warm soothing bath inside the heated room. Enjoy splashing, singing and kicking.
Dry off your baby with a warm towel and lay a fresh warm towel on the bed.
Pour some lotion or oil on your hands and start your massage
Start at the feet and use gentle, smooth strokes from baby’s heel to toe.
Work your way up to long strokes up your baby’s legs from ankle to thigh.
Give an upper body massage by making gentle strokes from the shoulders inward to the chest.
Move down your babies arms in a gentle massage.
Give a tummy massage by moving clockwise in smooth strokes across your baby’s belly.
Face massages should be done in smooth soft strokes from forehead to cheeks and onward.
Lastly, give a back massage by stroking from head to toe
Considering purchasing or selling a home? This is a huge financial decision and you will need to make a point to limit your costs when purchasing a home or increase your profit when selling a home.
Around 70% to 80% of property owners utilize a real estate agent or specialist when purchasing or selling a home. Since specialists take a shot at commissions, they’re just paid when a home sells and don’t get installment until after settlement. That agent will buckle down for you.
The standard commission is 6%. This is typically divided between the sales agent (posting specialist) and buyer agent. In any case, that full 6% isn’t generally setting off to the business agent and sales agent. It initially goes to the brokerage that is making the listing. By then, an agent regularly gets a cut of in the range of 60% and 90%, yet it can be lower.
If you are considering hiring an agent, it’s extremely important that you examine his or her history. On the off chance that that agent has an incredible reputation, it may be worth paying a top notch, which basically implies paying full commission. On the off chance that you can’t discover an agent with an awesome reputation, then at any rate endeavor to arrange the commission.
Buyer Agent Tips
In case you’re purchasing a home and plan on using an agent, there are a few stages to take after to guarantee you’re using sound judgment.
Search for the agent with the best reputation. Paying a premium for somebody who can get you as well as can be expected can help save you a huge number of dollars or more.
Negotiate commissions. The only case in which you shouldn’t make negotiations is if you’re working with a top-level agent which would make full commission legitimate in light of the fact that that agent will save you cash.
Try not to uncover to the agent what you’re willing to pay for a home while offering a much lower add up to the dealer. The agent may utilize this data to increase his own earnings out of it if he’s more worried with his commission.
Utilize www.naeba.org, the site for the National Association of Exclusive Buyer Agents. This site will help you discover buyer agents who have no binds to seller agents. This is additionally a decent approach to discover a buyer agent who deals with a proper fee structure instead of commissions.
In case you’re selling a home you can likewise decide to not hire an agent. Valuing is the way to success in case you’re selling a home all on you own. You can contract an autonomous appraiser for around $200 to guarantee you’re estimating the home effectively.
What amount of cash will you save? How about we accept you would have utilized an agent and paid a 6% commission for a $200,000 home. That is a huge amount of $12,000. In the event that you rather utilized a free appraiser for $200, in addition to how about we expect $200 for publicizing, then you simply saved $11,600. The only problem is that you have got to accept the fact that experts know things that you don’t. Terence J McCarthy is an awesome example of this. President of TJM properties in Florida, he has redeveloped houses, hotels and retirement communities in a way that no one else of his league could have. At times like this, you should know better to take the help of an expert in real estate business who knows what he’s doing!
Do you want to know how you can get a dog stroller for your dog? What things do you need to consider before making the purchase? Here are some helpful tips!
Tip One: Know Your Dog’s Size
To start off: Before purchasing a dog stroller, you truly need to consider the size of your pet. In the event that you have a puppy, estimate the size that they will be when fully grown unless you need to buy another stroller later on. There are various distinctive sizes of strollers for puppies available that have a weight limit running from 10 pounds to 165 pounds. You need to buy one that will hold your dog’s weight, yet more vitally enables your dog to be comfortable.
Consider how your dog will be most comfortable on the ride-standing up, sitting, resting and afterward measure the space required for that position. This should effectively be possible by measuring your dog in that position when on the floor or in their bed. Try not to pick to get a stroller that will be too little – your dog WILL get awkward and feel squished. On the off chance that you have a senior dog, you certainly need to construct your purchasing choice with respect to comfort. This is particularly valid if your senior dog has excruciating joint and hip issues, joint pain, or different conditions that enable them not have the capacity to walk exceptionally far.
Tip Two: Know Your Intended Use
Ask yourself how you will be utilizing the dog stroller. Strolling, running, jogging, going for errands to the store? On the off chance that your answer comprises of every day strolls around town and excursions to the store, a consistent doggy stroller will be great. These dog strollers generally have small tires with 2 wheel sets in the front and back. They are very easy to push on cleared regions and are awesome for crowded areas. If you plan on jogging around, then a pet jogging stroller will be ideal for you.
In conclusion, on the off chance that you want to go biking, there are even strollers for dogs that serve as a bicycle trailer that can be hauled behind your bike.
Tip Three: Know The Terrain Where You will be Using the Dog Strollers
This tip obliges tip #2, as it will rely on upon your planned use. You have to know where the greater part of your outdoor walks will happen. Will you be strolling on the side walk, in the grass at the park, on rock, or on a trail? On the off chance that a large portion of your walks will be on smooth surfaces, walkways and streets, or potentially on the cleared way in your nearby stop, a doggie stroller with small wheels and no suspension will be just fine.
Tip Four: Understand Safety Features
Security in the doggy stroller will be a need. You need to guarantee that your dog will be secure inside the stroller, particularly in the event that you have a dynamic dog that dashes around and will hop out on the off chance that they see someone else or something to chase. Most doggie strollers come equipped with a seat belt or tie that associates with the dog’s outfit or neckline.
An exceptionally valuable highlight is a stopping brake. When you stop to take a break or are at a place to give your dog a chance to out of the stroller, a stopping brake keeps the dog stroller set up.
When you buy your gadget, it will come with a lot of accessories that will help you use the gadget very well but as time goes by and you use your gadget more, the time will come when the items will start breaking down. One of the items that normally break down first is the gadget’s charger.
It is easy to just go to a random store and try to find a compatible charger that will work with the gadget that you have but actually, this may do more harm than good to your gadgets. Some people have reported that their gadgets have broken down permanently because of using the wrong charger. You do not want this to happen to you. The fake charger may be cheap but if it means that you have to replace your gadget too after a few weeks or months, the expenses you have to pay for will be much greater.
If in case your charger is still working and you like to protect it from breaking down, take a look at this site. You will see details that are difficult to dispute. You will have all of the proper ideas about how you can make your charger work well for a very long time.
Even with all of the things that you have done, your charger has still broken down. Do not worry as here are some tips you can follow to pick the right chargers for your gadgets:
Consider your power source.
Do you live in a place that uses 220V or 110V? There are some chargers that can be used for both provided that you have the right adapter. There are also some chargers that can be charged through USB ports. If in case you just want to charge your gadget without a charger, consider your laptop’s USB port. The mA may not be enough to powerfully charge your gadget.
Fast charging or not?
A lot of people would always choose to get fast chargers because you would like to use your gadget often but since they may be more expensive than the traditional chargers that may be a bit slower when it comes to providing your gadget with a full battery, it will be your choice if this feature is important for you or not.
You are not recommended to buy fake chargers and yet you still want to consider the amount that you have to spend on your new charger. If you find the prices of the charger you need too expensive when you look at some specialty stores in the mall, check the prices of the chargers online. Take note that some chargers may be cheap because they are fake. Make sure that the seller guarantees that the charger being sold is authentic otherwise your gadget may become problematic afterwards.
What are the other things that you normally consider when you need to purchase a new charger for your gadget? Feel free to share your comments and thoughts.
Preparing for a family trip is very important because you need to know what to pick and the right amount of items to pick. You may want to add an electric smoker to your package because it makes smoking dish a lot easier and faster.
One of the greatest pleasurable adventure you can think for you and your family is family snorkeling, this is an affordable trip that is far better than the rough and tumbling or hardcore west fishing that you might have been used to. The family fun snorkeling charter usually cater for a group of about 4 or 6, depending on the size of the family, and not more than 6, to ensure that the adventure if as pleasurable as it can get for everyone. The family snorkeling adventure is not all about fishing, you can take your food and drinks on board and take a short break while enjoying them in the sun. To learn more about snorkeling, click here.
With the family snorkeling event, there are no pressure, neither are there any expectations. With family fishing trips, you shouldn’t expect rough waters and you wouldn’t have to break your budget just to enjoy this adventure. One of the benefits of family snorkeling trips is that young anglers, especially kids are exposed to their first fishing experience, and they do get preferential treatment, likewise the older kids as well as adults who are not used to fishing trips are also encouraged. The water that are used for family fishing times are always calm and fun, hence you will enjoy a super versatile trip especially on custom-made boats that are designed and well-protected to handle family fishing expeditions.
You need to create memories that will last a lifetime, and with everyone winning with lots of catches to get, including the hakes, snorkels, jacks, Barracudas, and jacks, the pleasure will be awesome and your family will definitely want to return for more. One good thing about family fishing trips is that the charter always provide all the necessary fishing gears, hence you don’t have to worry about preparing for such accessories. If you want to catch fishes within the range 1-150 lbs. there are special gears designed for this, and you have access to a family-friendly captain who can handle the situation especially around kids.
If you and your kids want to take some extra lesson in casting, your coach can arrange a short one for you. There are also general lessons on how to use different snorkeling gears, or accessories, including rods, and reels. When embarking on family fishing trips, there are no particular fish species that are targeted, this is why you have the chance to catch smaller groupers, jacks, sharks, cod, hakes, or any species that may thriving during the particular season. While most of the smaller species get released back into the sea, others are used as baits for catching larger fish species.
With family snorkeling trips, you can book for a family of 4,6, or 8 people, however, most average charters will accommodate between 1 and 6 people at a time. With varying sizes of boats, the 24ft. bay boat as well as the 28ft. bay boat seem to be the two most popular types of both for single and small family fishing trips. The 28ft. bay boat as well as larger boats do come with consoles, as well as other facilities such as shades and restrooms, that will comfortably accommodate 6 people. The rates that are charged will usually depend on the number of family members attending the trip.
If you are attending a snorkeling trip with a family larger than 6, there are more boats provider to run the deep sea fishing cozumel charter all day long. Regardless of whether you are looking for a small or large family snorkeling trip, the Cozumel snorkeling services, has been catering for such expeditions for years and will definitely cater for yours.
If you are someone that likes to tinker in your at-home workshop you will understand that it is incredibly hard to keep this space clean and organized. The best thing is to take time to keep things clean and clear so that work you do can easily be completed. There is nothing worse than starting a new project and not being able to find any of the materials you need. Looking for a screw or hammer can be a nightmare if you have everything all over the place. The first step is to start with a clean slate. Get everything out of the garage which should include tools and junk. You need to get the space empty, clean everything thoroughly and make sure you plan the renovation that you are undertaking. Think of the space you have available and make it as convenient as possible. You might want to get rid of everything you no longer find useful.
Start with a ceiling if you don’t have one. Your workshop can really look dark and gloomy if you don’t have a ceiling. Make sure that you take the right measurements and find a strong and durable material to do the ceiling with. You can also lighten up your workshop by painting the walls and the ceiling. Click here for ideas on choosing the right paint for your work area. By installing the right lighting you will always be able to work on your project that can include day and night. You can use plug-in fixtures to install these lights. Fluorescents usually work very well for the best lighting. Make sure you use energy-saving lighting so that you don’t run up an electricity bill while working.
Now will be the best time to start your cleaning process. Get hold of a good and sturdy vacuum cleaner to make sure the floors are clean. If you don’t have a reliable vacuum cleaner you should take a look at Home Vacuum Zone for tips on purchasing the best possible one for your workshop. You will be able to do a fair comparison on some of the top brands and find the best one for your needs.
Once you are done with the dirty work you can take the time to install a workbench. Make sure it is sturdy and gives you enough space to work on. You might also want to add a rubber mat to the front of the bench so that you take no strain on your feet while working. You should also get the right storage system in place. With containers and various cabinets you will be able to label everything and use it as you need it. Make use of the wall space that you have available. Click here for tips on organizing your tools. Make sure that chemicals are stored safely and that you don’t have to be concerned about any fire hazards. Always keep safety in mind when cleaning up or renovating your workshop. You might also want to add a fire extinguisher as a safety measure with a first aid kit.
Do you have a horse lover in the family? Well, then the chances are pretty good that you have a hard time with spoiling that particular family member because they don’t seem to take a liking to anything other than horses. There is absolutely nothing wrong with loving horses. Horses are beautiful, majestic and wondrous creatures and horseback riding is one of the best hobbies there is since this hobby has so many therapy benefits. In fact, horses are often used to help a lot of people get over problems such as anxiety, depression and horses are used in plenty of therapy sessions for disabled individuals. It is quite easy to spoil a horse lover. All you have to do is stick to a horse theme in everything you do or buy for them.
Buy equestrian themed jewelry as a gift
Moti Ferder has a glorious equestrian themed jewelry set that any horse lover would absolutely love to own. In fact, any of Moti Ferder’s pieces are fantastic enough to impress a horse lover but his equestrian set is just fantastic. Moti Ferder designed a set of stirrup full diamond jewelry that includes a pendant necklace and pendant earrings but if you are looking for something even horsier then you can always check out his glorious horse themed rings and necklaces. This type of gift isn’t just a good horse lover gift but also a terrific future investment since this designers pieces are going to be sought after for a very long time to come.
Buy new horse supplies
A new horse saddle can be a brilliant gift that any horse lover would love to have. If your horse lover is a simple person then even a few new horse care tools would be a warm welcome.
Get the horse lover a new riding outfit
Those equestrian horse rising outfits are something gorgeous and timeless. A new helmet and boot set is also a perfect gift.
Enjoy a horse movie marathon
You can also include a few horsy activities while you are trying to spoil your horse lover. A horse movie marathon should include all the best horse movies such as Seabiscuit, Hidalgo, War Horse, The Horse Whisperer and Flicka to name a few.
Go horse riding
Of course your horse loving family member would love a simple horse ride. Perhaps you can even make a full day out of a horse riding trip by including a fun field picnic at a beautiful location with plenty of gorgeous scenery.
Pay for equestrian horse riding classes
Equestrian horse riding classes is always a good idea. You can hire a trainer or pay for horse riding classes and give the horse lover an educational gift in something that they adore.
Consider horse breeding
Horse breeding can be a terrific sideline business for horse lovers and even for you. If your child or spouse simply cannot seem to live without horses then create a way for them to always spend time with horses.
Student trips, or educational trips as they are otherwise known, are an important way of learning as we have fun. The truth of the matter is that many a time, learning everything in the confines of classrooms tends to become monotonous and our brains tend to get bored. Below we are going to look at some of the reasons why it is important for us to go on student trips.
This is the perfect opportunity for students to learn new things that they did not learn in class. Outside the classroom, new educational environments and experiences are possible between the teachers and the lecturers, and the students will explore things such as wildlife, plants, landscapes and even the stars. They can also discover that they have a passion for new hobbies such as surfing or para gliding.
The time that the students spend away from the everyday atmosphere of the classroom gives them an opportunity to spend time with each other in a new environment. Their relationships can become more personal without the structure of the normal school day. They can spend most of the time in small groups, observing, chatting and learning about each other. Having an Educational trip in the early part of the term is wise, since it will allow students to bond with classmates they may not know very well.
Informal Learning Environment
Educational trips are the perfect opportunity for valuable educational opportunities away from the classroom. During the trips, students can forget all about textbooks and other tools used in a normal school setting. The more informal environment actually tends to make the learning experience a lot more fun. If the Educational trip destination has staff members who do hands-on teaching with visiting students, such as at a metrological center or historical museum, the children will be excited because someone new will be teaching them.
The enjoyment of the day is the ultimate climax of the trip, no matter how much students learn during an Educational trip. Getting away from school for a few days or even half a day is always exciting for students, and Educational trips are always highly anticipated. Students will have fun with their friends and they also may return to the classroom with a renewed focus on their schoolwork.
Having looked at some of the reasons why it is important to plan educational trips for students, we are now going to look at Rustic Pathways, a global facilitator of educational travel experiences and services. It was founded by Chris Stakich, who after graduating from Harvard University in 2001, and has since helped the Chardon, Ohio-based organization grow more than 40 times in size. He also the co-founder of Thinking Beyond Borders and USA Gap Year Fairs, and helped launch Thrival World Academies.
Below we are going to focus on an interview that he had with Courtney Emdt, of the Student Group Tour Magazine.
When asked which country he would recommend every student visit
According to Chris, Burma was the perfect destination, with its transition from a horrible military dictatorship, with black zones that prevent visitors and information sharing to unprecedented changes and it’s amazing to meet the people in the far corners of the country. Burma is one of the most beautiful countries in all of Southeast Asia, and to top it off, it is still largely undeveloped.
The key to developing philanthropic leaders
Rustic Pathways provides students with hands-on learning experiences, allowing them to develop an understanding of different cultures. It also offers a new perspective on complex global issues. Giving back to the community is one of the things that Rustic Pathways focuses on, broadening the students understanding of the culture and community. They operate in more than 20 countries and are open to more customized destinations. Students can ride on ox carts and sleep in yurts unlike the regular buses and hotels.
How students are transformed through Rustic Pathways
Despite so many students being transformed by Rustic Pathways, one stands on in Chris’s view, Sam Stevens of St. Louis. He traveled to New Orleans in 2007 on their Rebuilding New Orleans program, where he worked on reconstruction efforts, and explored the city’s local culture and flavor.
On returning home, Stevens busied himself with initiatives in his hometown, receiving service scholarship from Tulane University where returned to New Orleans the following year to begin his undergraduate studies. As a college student, Stevens became immersed in the rebuilding scene, working at the St. Bernard Project. After graduating, he became site manager for a few of the projects that partnered with Rustic Pathways.
Recently, he graduated with a Masters from Tulane’s Disaster Resilience Leadership Academy, and during this time, he worked for a disaster recovery consulting firm reconciling damages from Hurricane Katrina to state-owned buildings. Currently, he is a program manager for Youth Rebuilding New Orleans, a nonprofit organization that rebuilds homes for locally displaced teachers. For Stevens, his Rustic Pathways charted the way to his future.
How educators can help students like Sam Stevens prepare for a life-changing trip
The curriculum should be directed towards the country’s history and cultural norms, or traditions that differ from their own. Giving students the opportunity to time to reflect and journal about their expectations for the experience, why they chose to participate, what they are hoping to gain from it or what they think will be most challenging, aids mentally and emotionally in preparation for their trip.
It is now time for us to move some of our studies out of the classrooms and concentrate on going on student trips that are helpful to students. The trips should be both enjoyable and educative, even influencing our lives the way that they did Stevens.
Once you’ve gotten your car in good working order, it might be time for a road trip. Taking a vacation can be an excellent reward, and getting out on the open road can be especially cathartic. But packing up the family for a trip requires planning. To help make sure you have everything covered, here are some tips to make the venture enjoyable for everyone.
Snacks and Drinks
While you will likely be stopping on a regular basis, it’s helpful to have some of your family’s favorite snacks and drinks on hand during the trip. However, it is important to consider how messy certain foods or beverages can be when you decide on what to bring.
Choose snacks that won’t make a mess when they are eaten. Avoid foods that produce crumbs or are sticky or greasy. Make sure all of the drinks can be closed, especially if you are traveling with young children, as this will help prevent accidentally spills.
Not everyone is comfortable at the same temperature, so having options to keep passengers warm (especially if the driver prefers it a bit cooler) can help make the trip more enjoyable for everyone. Consider packing several throw blankets to help keep everyone cozy during the ride. As a bonus, they can also be used in the hotel room if the provided bedding isn’t as warm as some people would like.
Paper towels, tissues, and even toilet paper are handy to bring on a road trip. You never know when a spill or a sneeze might happen, and rest area bathrooms may not always be well stocked. While you might not end up needing any of the paper products you bring, it is certainly better to have them available should the need arise.
Since you will be eating and drinking on the road, having a few trash bags to collect wrappers and empty bottles helps keep everything clean and organized in between stops. Look for smaller sized bags, instead of full-sized kitchen ones, and you might be able to bring the entire roll without it taking up much space. Then, simply toss the bag or empty it out whenever you cross paths with a trash can.
Taking an Infant? Here are Some Additional Items to Pack You Might Not Think Of
Traveling with an infant requires many other items, including diapers, wipes, and possibly formula. While most of these are predictable, there are other things that can help make your journey more pleasant.
For example, if you are going to be staying overnight with friends or family, you can bring the best wifi baby monitor you have available for use during the trip. That way, when it is time for the baby to sleep, you can spend time with your hosts while still keeping an eye on your baby’s needs.
Similarly, bringing a few of their favorite toys can make them feel more comfortable, and a portable crib can give them a safe place to sleep and play if your hosts don’t have one available.
By packing right, you can make sure your road trip will be remembered for all of the right reasons. Making sure everyone is comfortable, safe, hydrated, and well fed can help get things off to the best start, and can make your overnight stays more pleasant as well.
Smoke grilling is one of the best ways to prepare fish. When you smoke grill fish, the fish gets a unique and smoky taste that fuses well with the natural aroma of the fish. Smoked fish stays moist and soft enough to peel away easily in flaky chunks and this dish is surprisingly easy to prepare if you have an electric smoker.
Best types of fish for smoking
Fish types with more body and tissue fat is better for smoking than lean fish because the smoky aroma gets absorbed into oils much better although you should be able to smoke any type of fish and get a better aroma for any fish type. Salmon and bass are some of the best types of fish for your electric smoker.
Prepare your fish for smoking
Fish can be prepared for smoking in any way. You can even smoke a whole fish if you prefer although the best way to enjoy smoked fish is to fillet your fish because fillets absorb smoke better, the smoking time is much quicker and fillets are much easier to spice and to enjoy.
Get a good fish recipe
Some people prefer plain fish with only a little bit of salt and pepper, others love to prepare a full recipe for their fish. Here is an easy but delicious recipe for smoking 5lbs fillets;
1 quart of water
½ cup of coarse salt
½ of white sugar
Paprika or fish spice
Mix water, sugar and sugar on low heat until sugar is melted
Let fish rest in mixture overnight
Preheat the electric smoker
Rinse fillets and pat dry
Sprinkle fillets with fish spice or paprika
Smoke the fish for +- 3 hours at 175 – 200 F
When preparing your own caught fish it is best to let the smoker reach an internal temperature of 160 degrees F to ensure that there are no bacteria or disease in the fish.
Where to buy the best electric smoker
Dadgum barbecue is a great review site that you can check out learn more about electric smokers. The review site has great articles on different electric smokers like the Masterbuilder, Brinkmann, Bradley, Smoke Hollow and more. There are some great comprehensive guides where all of the pros and cons of electric smokers are discussed so you can choose the best electric smoker for your home. The reviews also link back to shops where you can buy electric smokers online easily. Visit http://dadgumbarbecue.com/best-electric-smoker/ to find out more about the electric smokers and to find the perfect smoker for your home whether you are looking for a large high quality smoker or a small cheap smoker that is perfect for only preparing the occasional smoked fillets.
Is smoked food healthy?
Smoked meats and vegetables have good anti-oxidant and anti-microbial agents that help you stay healthier, however there is also some danger in smoked foods. Consuming too much smoked foods is bad for your health and ensuring that meat is properly prepared is vital to prevent infections and diseases.